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Slipped disk

Also known as: Prolapsed Intervertebral Disk; Prolapsed Intervertebral Disk; PID; Herniated Disk; Slipped Disc

Description

Slipped Disk is an ailment involving the protrusion of the Cartilage of an Intervertebral Disk though the fibrous outer coat of the Intervertebral Disk, causing pressure on adjoining Nerves and Ligaments.

These Substances may Alleviate Slipped Disks

A simple regime

Vitamin C may prevent the requirement for Surgery in a percentage of persons afflicted with early back lesions that occur as a result of Slipped Disks.
Therefore Dual Vitamin C – Three capsules three times a day

MSM – one capsule three times a day

Inflammation formula – Three capsules three times a day

Quercetin – One capsule three times a day

These Substances may Enhance the Function of Intervertebral Disks

Carbohydrates

Chondroitin Sulfate may enhance the function of Intervertebral Disks and may help to prevent the degeneration of Intervertebral Disks. references
Glucosamine may enhance the function of Intervertebral Disks and may help to prevent the degeneration of Intervertebral Disks: references
- Glucosamine Sulfate may enhance the function of Intervertebral Disks and may help to prevent the degeneration of Intervertebral Disks. references

Polyphenols

Quercetin may reduce Inflammation (by inhibiting the release of Histamine by Basophils). references

Vitamins

Vitamin C may preserve the integrity of the Intervertebral Disks. references

References

Chondroitin Sulfate and Intervertebral Disks (Research)

Peer-Reviewed Professional Journals

• Van Blitterswijk, W. J., et al. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate supplementation to treat symptomatic disc degeneration: Biochemical rationale and case report. BMC Complement Altern Med. 3(1):2, 2003.

Division of Cellular Biochemistry, The Netherlands Cancer Institute (Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate preparations are widely used as food supplements against osteoarthritis, but critics are skeptical about their efficacy, because of the lack of convincing clinical trials and a reasonable scientific rationale for the use of these nutraceuticals. Most trials were on osteoarthritis of the knee, while virtually no documentation exists on spinal disc degeneration. The purpose of this article is to highlight the potential of these food additives against cartilage degeneration in general, and against symptomatic spinal disc degeneration in particular, as is illustrated by a case report. The water content of the intervertebral disc is a reliable measure of its degeneration/ regeneration status, and can be objectively determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signals. Oral intake of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate for two years associated with disk recovery (brightening of MRI signal) in a case of symptomatic spinal disc degeneration. The authors provide a biochemical explanation for the possible efficacy of these nutraceuticals. They are bioavailable to cartilage chondrocytes, may stimulate the biosynthesis and inhibit the breakdown of their extracellular matrix proteoglycans. The case suggests that long-term glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate intake may counteract symptomatic spinal disc degeneration, particularly at an early stage. However, definite proof requires well-
conducted clinical trials with these food supplements, in which disc de-/regeneration can be objectively determined by MRI. A number of biochemical reasons (that mechanistically need to be further resolved) explain why these agents may have cartilage structure- and symptom-modifying effects, suggesting their therapeutic efficacy against osteoarthritis in general.

Vitamin C and Intervertebral Disks (Research)

Peer-Reviewed Professional Journals

• Cathcart, R. E. Vitamin C, titrating to bowel tolerance, anascorbemia, and acute induced scurvy. Medical Hypotheses. 7:1359-1376, 1981.

The author reports that vitamin C (1,000 mg per day) reduces the incidence of surgery on intervertebral disks.

• Greenwood, J., Jr. Optimum vitamin C intake as a factor in the preservation of disc integrity. Med Ann Dist Columbia. 33:274-276, 1964.

This study found that supplemental vitamin C (500 - 1,000 mg per day) reduces the incidence of surgery on intervertebral disks in persons with lower back pain related to damaged intervertebral disks.

Quercetin and Inflammation (Research)

Peer-Reviewed Professional Journals

• Amella, M. Inhibition of mast cell histamine release by flavonoids and bioflavonoids. Planta Medica. 51:16-20, 1985.

[no abstract available].

• Comalada, M., et al. In vivo quercitrin anti-inflammatory effect involves release of quercetin, which inhibits inflammation through down-regulation of the NF-kappaB pathway. Eur J Immunol. 35(2):584-592, 2005.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Quercetin is a common antioxidant flavonoid found in vegetables, which is usually present in glycosylated forms, such as quercitrin (3-rhamnosylquercetin). Previous in vitro experiments have shown that quercetin exerts a bigger effect than quercitrin in the down-regulation of the inflammatory response. However, such results have not been reproduced in in vivo experimental models of intestinal inflammation, in which quercetin did not show beneficial effects while its glycosides, quercitrin or rutin, have demonstrated their effectiveness. In this study, the authors have reported that the in vivo effects of quercitrin in the experimental model of rat colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium can be mediated by the release of quercetin generated after glycoside’s cleavage by the intestinal microbiota. This is supported by the fact that quercetin, but not quercitrin, is able to down-
regulate the inflammatory response of bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. Quercetin inhibits cytokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression through inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway without modification of c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity (both in vitro and in vivo). Quercitrin releases quercetin in order to perform its anti-inflammatory effect which is mediated through the inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway.

• Della Loggia, R., et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of benzopyrones that are inhibitors of cyclo- and lipo-oxygenase. Pharmacol Res Commun. 20:S91-S94, 1988.

Kaempferol possesses strong and prolonged anti-inflammatory efffects.

• Formica, J. V., et al. Review of the biology of quercetin and related bioflavonoids. Food Chem Toxicol. 33(12):1061-1080, 1995.

The most frequently studied flavonoid, quercetin, has been shown to have biological properties consistent with its sparing effect on the cardiovascular system. Quercetin and other flavonoids have been shown to modify eicosanoid biosynthesis (antiprostanoid and anti-inflammatory responses), protect low-density lipoprotein from oxidation (prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation), prevent platelet aggregation (antithrombic effects), and promote relaxation of cardiovascular smooth muscle (antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic effects). Flavonoids have been shown to have antiviral and carcinostatic properties. However, flavonoids are poorly absorbed from the gut and are subject to degradation by intestinal micro-organisms. The amount of quercetin that remains biologically available may not be of sufficient concentration, theoretically, to explain the beneficial effects seen with the Mediterranean diet. The role of flavonoids may transcend their presence in food. The activity of flavonoids as inhibitors of reverse transcriptase suggests a place for these compounds in the control of retrovirus infections, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In addition to specific effects, the broad-modulating effects of flavonoids as antioxidants, inhibitors of ubiquitous enzymes (ornithine carboxylase, protein kinase, calmodulin), and promoters of vasodilatation and platelet disaggregation can serve as starting material for drug development programmes.

• Middleton, E. Jr., et al. Flavonoid inhibition of human basophil histamine release stimulated by various agents. Biochem Pharmacol. 33(21):3333-3338, 1984.

Eleven naturally occurring flavonoids representing five different chemical classes were studied for their effects on human basophil histamine release triggered by six different stimuli. The flavonoids included flavone, quercetin, taxifolin, chalcone, apigenin, fisetin, rutin, phloretin, tangeretin, hesperetin, and naringin. The stimuli were antigen, anti-IgE, concanavalin A, ionophore A23187, formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine, and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate. Concentration-effect relationships were established for each flavonoid (5-50 microM) at concentrations of stimuli which produced near optimal histamine release. Variable degrees of inhibition were noted depending on the nature of the stimulus and flavonoid structure. The flavonols, quercetin and fisetin, and the flavone, apigenin, exhibited a predilection to inhibit histamine release stimulated by IgE-
dependent ligands (antigen, anti-IgE, and con A). The flavanone derivatives, taxifolin and hesperetin, were inactive, as were the glycosides, rutin and naringin. The open chain congeners, chalcone and phloretin, also possessed inhibitory activity. Thus, the flavonoids may be useful probes in comparative analysis of secretory phenomena. The findings suggest that the biochemical pathways leading to secretion differ subtly from one stimulus to another. The differences are detectable with flavonoids of different structures and possibly reflect distinct pathways of Ca2+ mobilization or other unique mechanisms of action.

• Middleton, E., et al. Naturally occurring flavonoids and human basophil histamine release. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 77(1-2):155-157, 1985.

Naturally occurring plant flavonoids, normal dietary constituents, affect a variety of cell activation phenomena including the secretion of histamine from human basophils stimulated by a variety of agents (antigen, anti-IgE, concanavalin A, ionophore A23187, formyl-Met-Leu-Phe and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate). Variable profiles of inhibition are seen depending on the nature of the stimulus and the chemical structure of flavonoids.

• Miller, A. The etiologies, pathophysiology, and alternative/complementary treatment of asthma. Alternative Medicine Review. 6(1):20-47, 2001.

Quercetin has been demonstrated to inhibit mast cell degranulation and the subsequent release of histamine.

• Pearce, F., et al. Mucosal mast cells, III, Effect of quercetin and other flavonoids on antigen-induced histamine secretion from rat intestinal mast cells. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 73(6):819-823, 1984.

Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonol structurally related to the antiallergic drug disodium cromoglycate inhibits anaphylactic histamine release from MMC isolated from the small bowel LP of the rat previously infected with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. This contrasts with our previous observation that cromoglycate is inactive in this system. The present effect is immediate and does not decrease on preincubation with the drug. The flavonoids acacetin , apigenin , chrysin , and phloretin also demonstrate significant activity but are less potent than quercetin. Catechin, flavone, morin, and taxifolin are inactive. These results resemble those previously reported for the human basophil. In contrast, all compounds with the possible exception of taxifolin demonstrate significant activity against rat PMC. Acacetin and chrysin are the most effective inhibitors and are more active than quercetin. Rutin (the glycane of quercetin) and phlorezin (the glycane of phloretin) are inactive in both systems. These results are discussed in terms of the functional heterogeneity of mast cells from different sources and identify a group of compounds other than doxantrazole (reported previously), which inhibit histamine secretion by MMC.

• Rotelli, A. E., et al. Comparative study of flavonoids in experimental models of inflammation. Pharmacol Res. 48(6):601-606, 2003.

The anti-inflammatory activities of flavonols (quercetin, rutin and morin) and flavanones (hesperetin and hesperidin) were investigated in animal models of acute and chronic inflammation. Rutin was only effective in the chronic process, principally in adjuvant arthritis. On neurogenic inflammation induced by xylene, only the flavanones were effective; besides, these compounds were the most effective on subchronic process. The most important compound in reducing paw oedema induced by carrageenan was quercetin.

Other Professional Publications

• Inflammastat. Nutrition Care Practitioner Manual Edition 4. 2001:119-120.

Quercetin reduces inflammation. It inhibits the action of inflammatory prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase and arachidonic acid. It is a potent inhibitor of mast cells.

 
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