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What can I do to increase my exercise performance or endurance?

ENDURANCE EXERCISE Also known as:  Endurance Training

Description

Endurance Exercise is a form of Aerobic Exercise that is involves intensive Aerobic Exercise for a prolonged period of time.  Examples of Endurance Exercise include cycling 100 km, participating in a triathlon or marathon running.

Health Benefits of Endurance Exercise

Metabolism

Endurance Exercise facilitates weight loss in persons afflicted with Obesity.  references

These Substances may Enhance the Health of People who Undertake Endurance Exercise
SOLAL TECHNOLGIES PRODUCTS HIGHLIGHED IN YELLOW FOR EASY REFERENCE

Amino Acids

Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) supplementation may delay Fatigue in people who undertake Endurance Exercise.  references
Carnitine may counteract the accelerated depletion of Carnitine in the Muscles that occurs during/after Endurance Exercise.  references
Creatine Monohydrate (6 grams per day) may increase the “interval power” of people who undertake Endurance Exercise (in the relevant study, “interval power” was defined as the ability of triathletes to run up steep hills).  references

Glutamine may help to prevent Bacterial & Viral Diseases in persons who undertake Endurance Exercise (endurance athletes may have an increased rate of infections partly as a result of depletion of plasma Glutamine that occurs during Endurance Exercise).  references
Hydroxy Methylbutyrate (HMB) (3,000 mg per day used for two weeks prior to an event) may reduce the Muscle damage caused by Endurance Exercise by up to 50%, may improve VO2 max in people who engage in Endurance Exercise and may reduce recovery time in people who engage in Endurance Exercise.  references

Lipids

Beta-Sitosterol may counteract the suppression of the Immune System and the increased Inflammation that occurs following Endurance Exercise.  references
Beta-Sitosterol  may counteract the suppression of the Immune System that occurs following Endurance Exercise.  references

Minerals

Magnesium may increase the capacity for Endurance Exercise:  references

-    The combination of Magnesium Aspartate with Potassium Aspartate may increase the capacity for prolonged exercise by up to 50%.  Either Mineral alone is not as effective as the combination of both.
-    Magnesium may help to stabilize (preserve) Creatine Phosphate during Endurance Exercise.
-    Magnesium may counteract the accelerated excretion of Magnesium that occurs in people who engage in Endurance Exercise.

Phosphorus (4,000 mg of Sodium Phosphate per day) may reduce the accumulation of Lactic Acid following Endurance Exercise and may improve Athletic Performance in people who engage in Endurance Exercise.  references
People who frequently engage in Endurance Exercise may be at greater risk of Zinc deficiency (supplemental Zinc is desirable in that it may counteract the Zinc losses that occur in people who participate in Endurance Exercise).  references

Organic Acids

Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA) may increase the duration that an individual may undertake Endurance Exercise before Fatigue occurs.  references

Polyphenols

Gamma Oryzanol (50 mg per day) may reduce the excessive release of Cortisol that normally occurs following Endurance Exercise.  references

Quinones

Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinol is a superior form of CoQ10 see further attached) may prevent the damage to Muscles that can occur as a result of Endurance Exercise and may prevent the depletion of endogenous Coenzyme Q10 that occurs as a result of Endurance Exercise.  references

Vitamins

Vitamin C (1,000 - 3,000 mg per day) may counteract the increased susceptibility to Bacterial & Viral Diseases experienced by persons who undertake Endurance Exercise, may counteract the accelerated excretion of Vitamin C that occurs during and after Endurance Exercise, may counteract the increased susceptibility to Muscle Pain of people who undertake Endurance Exercise and may counteract the increased production of Free Radicals that occurs during Endurance Exercise.  references

Vitamin E (400 - 1,200 IU per day) may counteract many of the toxic effects (especially those caused by increased production of Free Radicals) during Endurance Exercise.  references

These Foods/Herbs may Enhance the Health of Persons who Undertake Endurance Exercise

Dietary Oils

Fish Oils may protect Muscle Fibers from the toxic effects (catabolism) caused by the Stress associated with Endurance Exercise and may help to prevent Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.  references

Herbs

Golden Root may improve Stamina in persons who undertake Endurance Exercise.  references
Korean Ginseng may facilitate recovery in persons who undertake Endurance Exercise.  references
Sanchi Ginseng may increase Stamina in persons who undertake Endurance Exercise.  references

Negative Effects of Endurance Exercise

Cardiovascular System

Long-term Endurance Exercise (e.g. as performed by long-distance running athletes) may increase the risk of Dilated Cardiomyopathy.
Prolonged, extremely arduous Endurance Exercise may cause damage to the Heart:

-    In one human study, 25% of triathlon participants experienced elevated Troponins (biochemical markers of Heart damage) levels at the completion of triathlons.

Digestive System

Endurance Exercise may cause Intestinal Cramps.
Endurance Exercise may cause a temporary increase in Intestinal Permeability.

Immune System

Endurance Exercise may increase the risk of Bacterial & Viral Diseases (due to the excessive Stress caused by excessive Endurance Exercise which in turn increases susceptibility to Bacterial & Viral Diseases).  references
Endurance Exercise may impair some functions of the Immune System.  references

-    Endurance Exercise may interfere with the function of Lymphocytes.  The changes in the Immune System that occur as a result of excessive Exercise occur in two phases:  references

-    Initially there is an approximate 50% increase in circulating Lymphocytes that occurs immediately upon cessation of Endurance Exercise.  This increase lasts for approximately thirty minutes and is believed to be stimulated by the release of Adrenaline during Exercise.
-    This is followed by a 30% to 60% decrease in circulating Lymphocytes below baseline values that lasts for approximately six hours.  This period is known as the “open-window of immunosuppression”.  The most likely reason for this fall in Lymphocytes levels is that Lymphocytes migrate out of the Blood and into areas of Muscle damage where they assist in the removal of Tissue debris caused by Endurance Exercise.  Cortisol is believed to be responsible for this phase.

Metabolism

Endurance Exercise may cause Fatigue:

-    This Fatigue occurs as a result of the excretion of large quantities of Potassium from the body (via Perspiration) and this loss of blood Potassium is balanced by the release of Potassium from the Muscles into the bloodstream which serves to restore normal blood Potassium levels while Muscle concentrations of Potassium decline.

Endurance Exercise may cause (temporary) Hypopxia.

Musculoskeletal System

Endurance Exercise may cause a decline in Bone mass.  references
Endurance Exercise may interfere with Muscle Growth (i.e. it may cause Muscle loss).
Endurance Exercise may cause Muscle Pain.
Endurance Exercise may cause temporary Muscle Weakness (due to the excessive accumulation of Lactic Acid that occurs during Endurance Exercise).

Endurance Exercise may contribute to Osteoporosis (although most forms of Exercise help to prevent Osteoporosis, high-volume Endurance Exercise (such as that performed by triathletes) causes Bone loss).  references

Nervous System

Endurance Exercise may cause (physical) Stress.  references

Respiratory System

Endurance Exercise may temporarily increase the risk of (Upper) Respiratory Tract Infections.  references

Sexual System

Excessive Endurance Exercise (e.g. as performed by triathletes) may cause Amenorrhea (suppressed Menstruation) in women.
Excessive Endurance Exercise (e.g. as performed by triathletes) may contribute to Male Infertility and may cause a decline in Sperm count, Sperm motility and Sperm virility (probably via Endurance Exercise causing a decline in Testosterone levels).  references

Endurance Exercise may Interfere with these Substances

Amino Acids

Endurance Exercise may cause the depletion of Carnitine from the Muscles.  references
Endurance Exercise may cause severe depletion of the body’s Glutamine reserves (a single bout of Endurance Exercise can cause a 50% reduction in plasma Glutamine for up to six days compared to pre-Exercise plasma Glutamine levels).  references

Endurance Exercise may lower Glutathione levels (due to Endurance Exercise generating excessive quantities of Free Radicals which Glutathione then attempts to “mop up” - this quenching of excessive Free Radicals results in depletion of Glutathione).  references

Hormones

Endurance Exercise may lower the body’s levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS).  references
Endurance Exercise may reduce women’s levels of Estrogens.  references
Excessive Endurance Exercise (overtraining) may cause a decrease in circulating levels of Human Growth Hormone (hGH). references

Endurance Exercise may reduce (both bound and free) Testosterone levels.  references

Minerals

Endurance Exercise may increase the excretion of Calcium (via Perspiration).  references
Endurance Exercise may increase the excretion of Chromium.
Endurance Exercise may increase the excretion of Copper.
Endurance Exercise may increase the excretion of Iron.  references

Endurance Exercise may increase the excretion of Magnesium.  references
Endurance Exercise may increase the excretion of Selenium.
Endurance Exercise may increase the excretion of Sodium.  references
Endurance Exercise may increase the excretion of Zinc.  references

Proteins

Endurance Exercise may cause the depletion of Ferritin (many endurance athletes exhibit serum Ferritin levels in the range of 20-80 ng/dl.  references

Quinones

Endurance Exercise may lower plasma Coenzyme Q10 levels.  references

Vitamins

Endurance Exercise may decrease plasma Choline levels.  references
Endurance Exercise may decrease plasma Vitamin A levels.  references
Endurance Exercise may decrease plasma Vitamin C levels.  references

Endurance Exercise may Enhance these Toxic Substances

Amino Acids

Endurance Exercise may cause elevated Homocysteine levels.  references

Hormones

Excessive Endurance Exercise (overtraining) may increase the body’s Cortisol levels.  references

Lipids

Endurance Exercise may increase the body’s production of Prostaglandin E2 (an inflammatory Prostaglandin).  references

These Substances may Impair Endurance Exercise Performance

Alkaloids

Caffeine may increase Muscle Lactic Acid levels in persons who undertake Endurance Exercise.  references

Contraindications:  Persons Who Undertake Endurance Exercise Should Avoid these Substances

Pharmaceutical Drugs

Aspirin should not be consumed during the 12 hour period prior to Endurance Exercise - the combination of Endurance Exercise and Aspirin substantially increases the permeability of the Stomach and Intestines (by damaging the Gastric Mucosa and Intestinal Wall) - this increased permeability permits Antigens to gain entry into the bloodstream more easily.  references

 
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