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Acetylcholine levels

Also known as : Ach; Acetyl Choline; O-Acetylcholine


Acetylcholine is a type of Neurotransmitter that is the most abundant Neurotransmitter in the Brain. Acetylcholine is also produced in the Intestines.

A Protocol toincrease the level of acetylcholine

Acetyl-l-carnitine - One capsule in the morning

Taurine - One capsule twice a day

Pregnenolone - One tablet in the morning after breakfast

PS - Phosphatidylserine – One capsule in the morning

Multi-B - Two capsules daily

Ginkgo Biloba - One capsule in the morning

Biological Functions of Acetylcholine

Nerve Fibres that release Acetylcholine are described as Cholinergic.

1. Digestive System

Acetylcholine is produced in the Intestines where its function is to enhance the process of peristalsis, thereby helping to prevent Constipation.

2. Metabolism

It has been hypothesized that Acetylcholine malfunction (especially in its relationship with Nicotinic Receptors) may be an underlying cause of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The rationale is that Acetylcholine malfunction in the Peripheral Nervous System may account for the physical (muscle) Fatigue experienced by CFS patients and that Acetylcholine malfunction in the Central Nervous System may account for the mental Fatigue experienced by CFS patients. Insufficient release of Acetylcholine at the Neuromuscular Junction is an underlying cause of many cases of (muscular) Fatigue.

3. Musculoskeletal System

Acetylcholine is responsible for stimulating Muscles to “move”:

Neuromuscular Junctions at the end of Motor Nerves conduct the release of Acetylcholine from the Axons of Motor Nerves to their target Muscle Fibres and via this process Acetylcholine facilitates the “movement” of Muscles.

Acetylcholine ensures that Mucous Membranes remain lubricated and moist.

Acetylcholine is required for optimal Muscle Tone.

4. Nervous System

Acetylcholine increases Alertness, Attentions span, controls the Parasympathetic Nervous System (a component of the Autonomic Nervous System) and is widely distributed within the Brain.

Deficiency is implicated in Alzheimer’s Disease.

Acetylcholine improves Concentration ability, Coordination., decreases Dementia and a deficiency is implicated in Depression.

Optimal Acetylcholine levels enhance various aspects of Intelligence and is involved in Learning.

Acetylcholine relays the Nerve Impulses that are involved in Memory and Acetylcholine deficiency has been implicated in Memory loss.

Acetylcholine increases Motivation as well as helps to maintain Sleep. It controls the amount of sensory input that reaches the Brain during Sleep and increases the stimulus barrier (increasing the threshold of sensory inputs before waking occurs) during Sleep. Optimal Acetylcholine allows sleepers to remain asleep through minor noises and other disturbances. Light sleepers are likely to have sub-optimal Acetylcholine:

  • Acetylcholine appears to govern Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep.

5. Sexual System

Decreased Sexual Desire in persons aged 40 and over is partly due to low Acetylcholine levels

Acetylcholine is involved in some aspects of Sexual Performance:

  • In males, Acetylcholine plays a role in the Corpus Cavernosum of the Penis for the attainment of erections.

Acetylcholine Enhances the Function of these Substances


Acetylcholine stimulates the activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase.


Acetylcholine stimulates the production of Nitric Oxide (by stimulating the activation of Nitric Oxide Synthase).

Acetylcholine is a precursor for the release of Vasopressin.

These Substances Enhance the Function of Acetylcholine

Amino Acids

Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) facilitates the synthesis and release of Acetylcholine.

  • ALC’s ability to increase the synthesis of Acetylcholine occurs as a result of it “donating” its Acetyl group towards the production of Acetylcholine.
  • ALC also mimics the function of Acetylcholine.
  • ALS increases Choline Acetylase levels.

Taurine increases Acetylcholine levels in the Hippocampus.


Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (after its conversion to DHEAS) enhances the release of Acetylcholine from the Hippocampus.

Pregnenolone increases the release of Acetylcholine in the Hippocampus.

Krebs cycle Chemicals

Acetyl Coenzyme A is involved in the endogenous synthesis of Acetylcholine.


Phosphatidylserine facilitates the production and release of Acetylcholine within the Cerebral Cortex and reverses the decline in Acetylcholine release that occurs in tandem with the progression of the Aging Process.

Smart Drugs

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) increases Acetylcholine levels within the Brain:

  • DMAE inhibits the metabolism of Choline in peripheral tissues (permitting “free” Choline to enter the Brain and stimulate the production of Acetylcholine).

Pyroglutamate stimulates the release of Acetylcholine in the Brain (this is believed to occur as a secondary effect from Pyroglutamate stimulating the release of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in the Brain).


Vitamin B1 facilitates the synthesis and presynaptic release of Acetylcholine.

Vitamin B5 is an essential catalyst for the conversion of Choline, Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) or Phosphatidylcholine to Acetylcholine.

Vitamin B12 facilitates the production of Acetylcholine.



Ginkgo biloba increases the responsiveness to and number of receptors for Acetylcholine (i.e. Muscarinic Receptors) within the Brain. Ginkgo biloba stimulates the uptake of Acetylcholine into the Hippocampus of the Brain.

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